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Web 3.0 Blockchain Technology Stack: Comprehensive Guide

Web 3.0 Blockchain Technology Stack: Comprehensive Guide

WEB development
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20 min

Let's explore the Web3 technology stack. Think of it like the building blocks of a new digital world. 

At the foundation, blockchain stack is a secure and transparent way to store data. Then, there are decentralized applications (dApps), like regular apps, but run on the blockchain instead of a central server. Smart contracts are another vital part—they're contracts initiated by an external party. They are executed according to the terms of the agreement written directly into the code.

But it doesn't stop there. We'll explore concepts like decentralized finance (DeFi), where traditional financial services are reinvented on the blockchain, and non-fungible tokens (NFTs), unique digital assets representing ownership of items like art or collectibles.

So, let's discover the exciting possibilities of Web3 stack and how it's reshaping the digital landscape for everyone.

Let’s get started!

Understanding the Web3 blockchain technology stack

In fact, Web 3.0 represents the next evolution of the Internet, emphasizing principles such as decentralization, interoperability, and user control over data. Unlike its predecessors, Web 3.0 aims to empower users, enhance privacy, and foster innovation through a more open, decentralized architecture.

What is Web3 development? So, Web 3.0, often called the decentralized web or the semantic web, is an emerging paradigm that seeks to revolutionize how information is accessed, shared, and monetized on the Internet. At its core, Web 3.0 is characterized by decentralized technologies such as blockchain, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, and distributed ledgers. These technologies enable a more equitable and transparent Internet ecosystem, where users have greater autonomy and ownership over their data and digital assets.

Now, let's analyze the critical characteristics of the Web3 tech stack:


It is a cornerstone principle of the Web3 technology stack. Unlike Web 2.0, where power is concentrated in the hands of centralized entities such as tech giants and social media platforms, Web 3.0 distributes power and authority across a network of nodes. Blockchain stack is crucial in achieving decentralization by eliminating the need for intermediaries and enabling trustless transactions. This decentralized architecture enhances security, reduces censorship, and promotes inclusivity.


This refers to the seamless exchange of data and services across different platforms and networks. In the Web3 technology stack, interoperability is facilitated by open protocols and standards that enable disparate systems to communicate and interact with each other. This interoperability fosters innovation by allowing developers to build upon existing technologies and create new, interconnected applications and services. As a result, users can enjoy a more cohesive and integrated Internet experience.

User control over data

Web3 prioritizes user sovereignty and data privacy. It empowers users to own, control, and monetize their data. Through decentralized identity solutions and self-sovereign identity frameworks, users can manage their digital identities and selectively share information with trusted parties. Additionally, decentralized storage platforms enable users to store data securely without relying on third-party intermediaries, reducing the risk of data breaches and unauthorized access.

Enhanced security

In general, security is a top priority in the Web3 developer stack. By using cryptographic techniques and decentralized consensus mechanisms, Web3 applications are inherently more secure and resilient to cyber-attacks. Blockchain technology, in particular, provides an auditable record of transactions, reducing the risk of fraud and manipulation. Moreover, decentralized authentication mechanisms and multi-signature wallets enhance the security of digital assets, ensuring that users remain in control of their funds at all times.

Tokenization and digital assets

Web3 introduces the concept of tokenization, where real-world assets are represented as digital tokens on blockchain networks. These digital assets can be easily transferred, traded, and fractionalized, unlocking new opportunities for liquidity and investment. Additionally, tokenization enables novel business models such as DeFi, NFTs, and tokenized securities, democratizing access to financial services and digital assets.

Key differences between Web3 stack and its predecessors

The evolution of the Internet has brought about significant changes in how we interact with information, services, and each other. Static web pages and limited user interaction characterize Web 1.0. On the other hand, Web 2.0 introduces dynamic content, social networking, and user-generated content.

Since we have already discussed the main characteristics of Web3 tech stack above, we will now analyze Web1 and Web2:

Web 1.0

It is also known as the "read-only" web, emerged in the early 1990s and was primarily focused on publishing static content for consumption by users. Critical characteristics of Web1 blockchain stack include:

  • Static web pages: Websites were predominantly static, consisting of basic HTML pages with limited interactivity.
  • Centralized content creation: Content creation was centralized, with a few publishers producing and distributing information to passive audiences.
  • Limited user interaction: User interaction was minimal, typically limited to clicking hyperlinks to navigate between pages.
  • Information silos: Websites operated as isolated silos, with little interoperability or data sharing between platforms.
  • Basic security measures: Security measures were fundamental, with websites relying on basic authentication mechanisms such as passwords.

Web 2.0

It is referred to as the "read-write" web, emerged in the early 2000s and introduced dynamic, interactive content and user participation. Key characteristics of Web2 blockchain stack include:

  • Dynamic content: Websites became more dynamic and interactive, incorporating technologies like AJAX to enable real-time updates and asynchronous communication.
  • User-generated content: Users became active participants in content creation, contributing to blogs, social media platforms, wikis, and other collaborative platforms.
  • Social networking: Social networking platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn gained prominence, enabling users to connect, share, and interact with each other online.
  • Data portability: Web 2.0 introduced APIs (​​application programming interfaces) and data formats like RSS, enabling data portability and interoperability between different platforms and services.
  • Personalization: Websites began to offer personalized experiences, leveraging user data to tailor content and recommendations.

Below is a comparison table of these blockchain tech stack versions. Let’s check together!

AspectWeb 1.0Web 2.0Web 3.0
User interactionLimitedActiveActive
Content creationCentralizedUser-generatedUser-generated
Data controlCentralizedSome controlUser control
TechnologyHTML, Basic ScriptingAJAX, APIsBlockchain, peer-to-peer

In summary, while Web1 focused on publishing static content and Web2 introduced dynamic, user-generated content and social networking, Web3 stack represents a shift towards decentralization, interoperability, and user control over data, enabled by technologies like blockchain.

Main components of the blockchain technology stack

Blockchain technology comprises various layers, each serving a crucial role in the functioning and operation of blockchain networks. These layers ensure the integrity, security, and efficiency of decentralized systems. Let's check the main elements of the blockchain technology stack:

Protocol layer

This layer forms the foundation of the blockchain technology stack. It contains the underlying rules, protocols, and algorithms governing how data is structured, validated, and stored within the blockchain network. Key components of the protocol layer include:

Consensus mechanisms

These algorithms enable participants in a blockchain network to agree on the validity of transactions and maintain a consistent ledger. Examples include Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), and Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT).


It is essential for securing data on the blockchain. This involves techniques such as hashing, digital signatures, and encryption to ensure transaction and identity integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality.

Smart contracts

These smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. They enable automated and trustless transaction execution, eliminating the need for intermediaries and enhancing efficiency in various applications.

Network layer

The network layer facilitates communication and coordination among nodes in the blockchain network. It propagates transactions, maintains network topology, and ensures connectivity and consensus among participants. Essential components of the network layer include:

Peer-to-peer (P2P) network

Blockchain networks typically operate as decentralized P2P networks, where nodes communicate directly with each other without the need for intermediaries. P2P networks facilitate data transmission, synchronization, and consensus among nodes.

Node types

Nodes in the blockchain tech stack can serve different functions. These include full nodes, which maintain a complete copy of the blockchain, and lightweight nodes or SPV (Simplified Payment Verification) nodes, which rely on full nodes for transaction verification.

Network protocols

Blockchain networks employ various network protocols to facilitate communication and data exchange among nodes. These protocols govern how nodes discover and connect, exchange messages, synchronize data, and reproduce transactions across the network.

Data layer

The data layer is responsible for storing and managing the steadfast ledger of transactions on the blockchain. It ensures data integrity, accessibility, and transparency while preserving the chronological order of transactions. Fundamental components of the data layer include:

Distributed ledger technology (DLT)

Blockchain technology stack utilizes DLT to maintain a decentralized and tamper-resistant ledger across multiple nodes. Each node stores a copy of the ledger, and transactions are recorded in blocks linked together in a chain.

Block structure

Blocks contain validated transactions and metadata such as timestamps, cryptographic hashes, and references to the previous block. The structure of blocks ensures the integrity and immutability of data on the blockchain.

Data storage mechanisms

Blockchain networks employ various data storage mechanisms, including distributed databases, cryptographic hashing, and Merkle trees, to efficiently store and retrieve transaction data while ensuring security and scalability.

Below is a diagram that shows how transaction hashes can be related to the Merkle root in a block header.

Application layer

The application layer covers the user-facing interfaces, protocols, and decentralized applications built with the blockchain stack. It enables users to interact with the blockchain network, access services, and deploy custom applications. Critical components of the application layer include:

Decentralized applications (dApps)

They are software applications that run on decentralized blockchain networks. They use smart contracts and peer-to-peer protocols to offer services and functionalities without central control or intermediaries.

Wallets and interfaces

Wallets and user interfaces provide users with tools to manage their digital assets, interact with smart contracts, and initiate transactions on the blockchain. They come in various forms, including desktop, mobile, and web-based applications.

Interoperability protocols

These protocols enable communication and interaction between different blockchain networks and platforms. They facilitate cross-chain transactions, data exchange, and asset interoperability, enhancing the connectivity and versatility of blockchain ecosystems.

By understanding these components, we can appreciate the complexity and innovation driving the evolution of blockchain technology stack and its myriad applications across various industries.

Popular Web3 tech stack environments

The Web3 technology stack has a range of environments, platforms, and ecosystems where developers build, deploy, and interact with DApps, smart contracts, and blockchain networks. These environments provide the infrastructure, tools, and resources necessary for Web3 development and deployment. Here are some critical environments within the Web3 tech stack:

Blockchain networks

These networks are the foundation of the Web3 ecosystem, providing decentralized, immutable, and transparent ledgers for recording transactions and executing smart contracts. Examples of blockchain networks include:

It is a leading blockchain platform that enables the development of smart contracts and decentralized applications. Ethereum provides a Turing-complete programming language called Solidity for writing smart contracts and tools like Truffle and Remix for development and testing.

This is a JavaScript library allowing developers to interact with Ethereum nodes and smart contracts from web applications. It provides a convenient API for performing various blockchain operations, such as reading and writing data, sending transactions, and listening for events.

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System)
IPFS is a decentralized storage protocol that enables the creation of distributed file systems. It allows users to store and retrieve content using content-based addressing, making it resistant to censorship and ensuring data integrity. IPFS is often used in conjunction with Ethereum to store and serve DApp content.

It is a multi-chain blockchain platform that enables interoperability between different blockchains. Polkadot provides a Web3 framework for building custom blockchains, known as parachains, that can communicate with each other through the Polkadot relay chain. This platform aims to solve existing blockchain networks' scalability and interoperability challenges.

This decentralized oracle network connects smart contracts with real-world data and external APIs. It provides a secure and reliable way to access off-chain data, ensuring the accuracy and integrity of data inputs for smart contract execution. Chainlink's decentralized oracle network prevents single points of failure and tampering.

It is a high-level programming language for writing smart contracts on Ethereum and other EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) compatible blockchains. Solidity is specifically designed to write secure and auditable smart contracts that can be executed on the Ethereum blockchain. Also, Solidity supports features such as inheritance, libraries, and custom data structures.

This is a blockchain development framework developed by Parity Technologies. It provides a modular and extensible Web3 framework for building custom blockchains with specific features and functionalities. Substrate simplifies blockchain development by providing pre-built consensus, governance, and asset management modules.

It is a local blockchain emulator and development environment for Ethereum. Ganache allows developers to create and deploy Ethereum contracts, develop DApps, and run automated tests in a local sandbox environment. This platform provides features such as built-in accounts, gas control, and blockchain exploration tools.

Development environments

These environments provide tools and resources for building, testing, and deploying Web3 applications and smart contracts. These environments offer features such as code editors, compilers, debuggers, and testing frameworks. Examples of development environments include:


It is a web-based IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for Ethereum smart contract development. Remix provides syntax highlighting, code compilation, debugging, and deployment to Ethereum testnets and mainnets.


This Web3 framework simplifies the process of building and deploying smart contracts. It provides tools for project management, testing, deployment, and support for popular Ethereum development libraries like Web3.js.


It is a development environment for Ethereum smart contract development that offers built-in testing, debugging, and deployment features. Hardhat is highly extensible and provides a plugin system for integrating other tools and frameworks.

Wallets and browser extensions

These extensions enable users to interact with decentralized applications, manage digital assets, and sign transactions securely. Such tools provide account management, transaction signing, and DApp integration features. Examples of wallets and browser extensions include:


Within the Web3 tech stack, it is a popular Ethereum wallet and browser extension that allows users to manage Ethereum accounts, interact with DApps, and sign transactions securely. MetaMask provides key management, token support, and network switching features.


This is an open protocol for connecting decentralized applications to mobile wallets through QR code scanning or deep linking. It enables secure communication between DApps and wallets without compromising user privacy.

Ledger Nano S/X

Ledger Nano S and Ledger Nano X are hardware wallets that provide secure storage for digital assets and support for signing transactions offline. They offer multi-currency support, backup and recovery, and firmware updates.

Testing and deployment platforms

These platforms enable developers to test, deploy, and monitor Web3 applications and smart contracts on various blockchain networks. Such platforms provide features such as automated testing, continuous integration, and deployment pipelines. Examples of testing and deployment platforms include:


It is an infrastructure provider for Ethereum and IPFS that offers reliable and scalable API access to blockchain networks. It provides WebSocket support, load balancing, and analytics for monitoring network performance.


This blockchain infrastructure platform provides developers with tools for building, scaling, and operating Web3 applications. It offers node hosting, API access, and analytics for monitoring application performance.


It is a blockchain explorer and analytics platform for Ethereum that provides tools for tracking transactions, smart contracts, and network activity. This platform offers address tracking, contract verification, and token analytics features.

Common challenges faced by the Web3 tech stack

Web3 tech stack faces several challenges on its path to mainstream adoption. These problems contain technical, regulatory, and usability aspects, slowing the full realization of Web3's potential. Let's explore some typical challenges faced by the Web3 developer stack:


It remains a significant hurdle for Web3 platforms, particularly blockchain networks. As the number of users and transactions increases, blockchain stack often faces congestion and high fees. Current blockchain solutions struggle to match the throughput of traditional centralized systems like Visa or Mastercard. Improving scalability while maintaining decentralization is a complex engineering problem that requires innovative solutions such as sharding, layer 2 scaling solutions, and consensus mechanism improvements.


The user experience (UX) of Web3 applications often falls short of mainstream expectations. Complex wallet setups, cryptographic keys, and unfamiliar interfaces pose usability challenges for non-technical users. Improving the UX of Web3 applications through intuitive design, user-friendly interfaces, and streamlined onboarding processes is essential for driving adoption beyond crypto enthusiasts.

Regulatory uncertainty

So, regulatory uncertainty surrounding cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology, and decentralized finance significantly hinders Web3's adoption. Different jurisdictions have varying regulations and interpretations, creating compliance challenges for Web3 projects and startups. Clear and coherent regulatory Web3 frameworks are needed to foster innovation while ensuring consumer protection and financial stability.


It remains a critical concern in the Web3 tech stack, given the prevalence of hacks, scams, and vulnerabilities in smart contracts and decentralized applications. Secure coding practices, formal verification techniques, and robust auditing processes are essential for decreasing security risks in Web3 projects. Additionally, the lack of centralized authorities or intermediaries in decentralized systems makes it challenging to recover lost funds or resolve disputes, emphasizing the importance of self-sovereignty and personal responsibility.


Decentralized governance is another challenge in the Web3 technology stack. Decision-making processes for protocol upgrades, network parameters, and resource allocation often lack precise and consensus mechanisms. Governance models such as DAOs (decentralized autonomous organizations) aim to address this challenge by enabling community-driven decision-making through token-based voting and governance proposals.

Environmental impact

Blockchain networks' energy consumption and environmental impact, particularly proof-of-work based systems like Bitcoin and other blockchains with the same consensus mechanism, have drawn criticism for their carbon footprint. Transitioning to more energy-efficient consensus mechanisms like proof-of-stake and exploring alternative energy sources are crucial steps toward reducing the environmental footprint of Web3 tech stack.

So, collaborative efforts from developers, entrepreneurs, regulators, and users are essential for overcoming these challenges and building a more decentralized and equitable Internet ecosystem.

Simplified blockchain tech stack at Peiko

At Peiko, we employ the latest technologies and best practices to deliver solutions that drive your business into decentralized applications, blockchain, and the metaverse.

DApps development: witness the transformation of your ideas into reality with our custom-built, highly scalable dApps. Crafted with precision to align with your project's unique requirements, our dApps stand as pillars of innovation in any niche they serve.

Cryptocurrency wallet development: safeguard and manage your digital assets effortlessly with our reliable and secure crypto wallet solutions. Seamlessly buy, exchange, stake, and manage your Web3 assets all in one place, ensuring peace of mind and convenience.

NFT development: experience seamless trading and exciting live auctions within immersive 3D environments, or opt for our ready-to-deploy marketplace solutions for swift customization and deployment.

Web3 smart contract development: build the foundation of your decentralized applications with our robust and secure smart contracts. Composed by our skilled team of developers, our smart contracts form the basis of your Web3 tech stack, ensuring reliability and trustworthiness.

DAO development: empower your community to participate in your organization's management and evolution through transparent and decentralized decision-making processes.

Web3 metaverse development: tailored to diverse industries, including gaming, entertainment, real estate, fashion, and social media, our metaverse solutions redefine digital experiences and interactions.

Web3 game development: using next-gen development tools like Unreal Engine 5 and Unity, our skilled developers craft stunning gaming experiences that foster innovation and creativity.

DeFi development: revolutionize traditional financial services with our customized DeFi solutions. If it's lending, borrowing, trading, or any other financial activity, our DeFi apps offer exceptional security, efficiency, and transparency.

Case study: Myfinance

With our robust Web3 development services, our project involved conducting a thorough audit of an existing SaaS web platform and analyzing partner businesses. We focused on analyzing data transfer from the FinAPI service and enhancing user security by implementing 2FA functionality.

Additionally, we developed a design solution featuring real charts and graphs to display data effectively. A unique logic for assessing income and expenses over decades was also devised. 

The main challenge was in redesigning the UX/UI vision and optimizing pages and dashboards for intuitive usability, ensuring users could navigate the platform effortlessly. Testing the functionality of the FinAPI service was crucial to understanding its capabilities for sending and receiving requests.

Bottom line

In conclusion, the Web3 technology stack offers exciting possibilities for developers, users, and businesses by bringing decentralization, connectivity, and user control to the Internet. With blockchain networks serving as the basis of this ecosystem, developers have access to many development environments, tools, and platforms to create innovative decentralized applications and smart contracts.

Despite the challenges, the Web3 technology stack continues to evolve, driving the vision of a more open, transparent, and inclusive Internet where users have greater control over their data and digital assets.

Are you ready to use Web3's power for your next project? Our full-cycle software development company is here to help you guide the complexities and unlock the potential of this transformative technology. Get in touch with us today!

What is full stack blockchain developer?
What is Hardhat in Web3 stack?
What is the difference between Web2 and Web3 technology stack?
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